STAGE

AGES

FREUD

PSYCHOSEXUAL

ERIKSON

PSYCHOSOCIAL

PIAGET

COGNITIVE

KOHLBERG

MORAL

FOWLER

SPIRITUAL

DUVAL

FAMILY

 

Infant

Birth - 1 yr.

 

Identify with maternal person

 

Oral

 

Trust vs. Mistrust Basic needs are met

 

Sensorimotor

1° Circular (reflex activity repeated)

2 ° Circular (intention)

3 ° Circular (explore/trial)

Object permanence

 

 

 

0 -  Undifferentiated

Trust = foundation of faith

 

Establishment & Expectant stages precede Childrearing Stage & integration of infants & young children to family

 

Toddler

1 - 3 yrs

 

Identify with parental persons

 

Anal

 

Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt

 

End of Sensorimotor beginning or PRE-OPERATIONAL LANGUAGE, Not logical

     PRE-CONCEPTUAL

     Egocentric

     Centration

 

 

 

 

 

Pre-School

 

3-6 yrs

 

Identify with basic family

 

 

Oedipal

 

Initiative vs. Guilt

 

PRE-OPERATIONAL

“Egocentrism” decreases,

Aware of other’s thoughts

Magical/animistic

 

 

Pre-conventional

“Egocentric”

Avoid punishment

Satisfy own needs

 

1 - Intuitive, Projective:  Imitate Assimilate values

 

Preschool Age:  Adapt to needs of young child, Cope with low Energy & privacy lack

 

School Age

6-10/12 yrs.

 

Identify with Neighborhood, school

 

 

Latent

 

Industry vs. Inferiority

 

Concrete Operations “Literal”

Logical principles

Meanings, classify

 

Conventional

“Societal”

Please others

Obey rules

 

2 - Mythical-literal

Omnipotent Deity

Good is rewarded

 

School Age,

Fit into community,

Encourage education

 

Adolescent

12-18 yrs.

Identify with peers, out-groups, leaders, partners

 

Genital

 

Identity vs. Confusion

 

Formal Operations

Analyze, Abstract

 

Postconventional

“Universal”

Right vs. Wrong

 

3-Synthetic- Conventional

“Question”

4-Individuating-Reflexive “Compares”

 

Teen-age, Balance freedom with responsibility,

Establish parent interests & careers of

 


                                                  DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES

 

 

ERIKSON:  PSYCHOSOCIAL 8 STAGES OF MAN & GENERAL

               

TRUST VS MISTRUST (HOPE) BIRTH - 1 YEAR

Consistent response to needs builds trust in environment, self, feeling of inner goodness

Significant: Maternal/parent - baby  relationship builds foundation for spiritual/relationship intimacy, separation painful 6 months - 1 year

 

AUTONOMY VS SHAME/DOUBT (WILL) 1-3 YEARS            

Assertion of will, conflicting independence/dependence, "holding on & letting go," rituals-routines-sameness,

"No"--control: active, stormy, mobile

Significant:  Parents

 

INITIATIVE VS GUILT (PURPOSE) 3-5/6 YEARS

Play more meaningful/ associative, explore, "intrusive" sex role\identity, imagination, curiosity, fantasy, fears,

internalizing values, conscience/guilt, sense of self

Significant:  Family

 

INDUSTRY VS INFERIORITY (COMPETENCE) 6\7-10/12 YEARS

"Mastery," & work pleasure, need for self esteem, desire to learn, increasing independence, awareness of world

at large, increased physical activity, empathy, concrete logic, rules, moralistic, right from wrong

Significant:  Family, peers, school, neighborhood

 

IDENTITY VS ROLE CONFUSION (FIDELITY) EARLY 10-12 YEARS: LATE POST PUBERTY

Physical changes, sense of identity never gained or maintained completely

---changing, feeling at home in one's body, sense of "knowing where one is going," "who am I?" inner certainty of anticipated recognition, readiness to face challenges of adult world, independence/emancipation from parents, values/ethics, life work prep

Significant:  Peers, role models, leaders, family

 

INTIMACY/SOLIDARITY VS ISOLATION (LOVE) 21 - 35 YEARS

Growth, building, setting life's course, optimism, energy, self reliance, persona & career goals, love relationships

create bonds of intimacy, sense of self

Significant:  Love relationships, family, "significant other"

 

GENERATIVITY VS STAGNATION (CARE) 35-60 YEARS

Re-evaluation, time--limited, doubts, concerns--regarding sense of self, "Who am I?"  step back--assess, lifestyle, family & career issues,       responsibilities--burn-out, enjoy authority & involvement

Significant:  Mate, family

 

INTEGRITY VS STAGNATION (WISDOM) 60+ YEARS

Satisfaction/dissatisfaction with choices, benefits, losses

Significant:  Family, "significant other," grandchildren


FREUD:  PSYCHOSOCIAL

 

ORAL:  BIRTH - 1 YEAR

Feeding, sucking satisfaction, sensory input, movement; goal is to learn to cope with dependence, forms symbiotic relationship with mother

 

ANAL:  1-3 YEARS

Concerned with retention and elimination--if successful child learns to master part of external world; goal is autonomy--developing & coping with it

 

PHALLIC:  3-6 YEARS

Self centered, egocentric, narcissistic; infantile genital locomotor, conscious of own power, attempts to resolve Oedipal conflict--then identifies with same sex

 

LATENT:  6-10\12 YEARS

Learns to suppress infantile sexuality, identification of sex role, typically "homosexual," gains cultural & intellectual skills, "gang" stage

 

GENITAL:  PUBERTY - OLD AGE

Libido invested in activities that prepare one to deal with mature sex drive; forming friendships, preparing for career, courting, marriage, homosexual to heterosexual orientation          

 

PIAGET;  COGNITIVE

 

SENSORIMOTOR:  BIRTH-2 YEARS

Learns to coordinate actions with what is perceived, and develop object permanence (things exist, even when out of sight)

1.             Use of reflexes:  birth-1 month (suck, grasp...)

2.             Primary circular reactions: 1-4 months

                Reflex activity repeated--creates pleasure

3.             Secondary circular reactions: 4-8 months

                Actions intentional

4.             Coordination of secondary schemes: 8-12 months

                Goals are set, baby uses actions to meet them

5.             Tertiary Circular Reactions: 12-18 months

                Exploration & trial

6.             Mental Combinations:  18-24 months

                Thought begins as language used

                Imitation common & object permanence well developed

 

PRE-OPERATIONAL THOUGHT:  2-7 YEARS

Language used to facilitate thought,logic not mature

Animistic thinking: Everything is alive with thoughts & feelings, magic & words as powerful as actions, wishes  can come true, does not reason from observation & can accept false explanations without question

 

                PRE-CONCEPTUAL:  2-4 YEARS

                Egocentric thought:  "self" perspective

                Centration:  One thought at a time

 

                INTUITIVE:  4-7 YEARS

Decreasing egocentrism, increased awareness of thoughts of others & developing toward ability to see "other" perspective


CONCRETE OPERATIONS:  7-11 YEARS

Logical thought, classification, conservation, reversibility, "Literal " meanings

 

FORMAL OPERATIONS:  11 + YEARS

Abstract , logical, analysis, theory construction (Not necessarily "mature")

 

KOHLBERG:  MORAL DEVELOPMENT

 

PRE-CONVENTIONAL:  4-10 YEARS    EGOCENTRIC PERSPECTIVE

Consequences of actions (reward vs punishment) guide behavior

Avoidance of punishment

Satisfy one's own needs

 

CONVENTIONAL:  10-13 YEARS   SOCIETAL PERSPECTIVE

Expectations of social group, family, community supported

That which pleases others, basis for moral decisions

Obey rules & authority

 

POST-CONVENTIONAL:  13+ YEARS   UNIVERSAL PERSPECTIVE

Universal morals, principles, personal values become basis for moral decisions

 

FOWLER:  SPIRITUAL

 

STAGE 0:  UNDIFFERENTIATED:  INFANT

Trust, related to caregiver & quality of care

 

STAGE 1:  INTUITIVE-PROJECTIVE:  TODDLER, PRESCHOOLER

Imitate religious activates, assimilate values & beliefs, moral codes from attitudes of parents

 

STAGE 2:  MYTHICAL-LITERAL:  SCHOOL AGE

Omnipotent diety (correlates with concrete operational thought), good behavior is rewarded, bad behavior is punished, conscience bothers when disobey

 

STAGE 3:  SYNTHETIC-CONVENTIONAL:  EARLY ADOLESCENT

Question established parental religious standards, modify religious practices

 

STAGE 4:  INDIVIDUATING-REFLEXIVE:  LATER ADOLESCENT

Skeptical, compare religious standards, searching

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DUVALL'S DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF THE FAMILY

 

STAGE I:  MARRIAGE & AN INDEPENDEND HOME: THE JOINING OF FAMILIES

Establishment/re-establishment of couple identity.  Realign relationships with extended family.  Make decisions regarding parenthood

 

STAGE II:  FAMILIES WITH INFANTS

Integrate infants into family unit. Adjust to new parenting/grandparenting roles

Maintain marital bond

 

STAGE III:  FAMILIES WITH PRE-SCHOOLERS

Socialize children.  Parents & children adjust to separation

 

STAGE IV:  FAMILIES WITH SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN

Children develop peer relations. Parents adjust to peer & school influences

 

STAGE V:  FAMILIES WITH TEENAGERS

Adolescents develop increasing autonomy. Parents focus on midlife marital & career issues,  shift toward concern for older generation

 

STAGE VI:  FAMILIES AS LAUNCHING CENTERS

Parents renegoiate marital relationship; young adults establish independence

 

STAGE VII:  MIDDLE-AGED FAMILIES

Reinvest in couple identity with concurrent development of independent interests

Realign relationships to include in-laws & grandchildren

Deal with disabilities & death of older generation

 

STAGE VII:  AGING FAMILIES

Shift from work role to leisure & semi/full retirement

Maintain couple & individual functioning while adapting to aging process

Prepare for own deal & dealing with loss of spouse, siblings, peers