assignment for this week is chapter 7 in your text. The focus this week is
on leadership in nursing practice.
Definition of Leadership in Nursing Practice
Your text makes a
distinction between leadership and managing. Leddy and Pepper, (1993, page
384) define nursing leadership as "a mutual process of interpersonal
influence through which a client is assisted to make decisions in
establishing and achieving goals toward improved well-being and the
professional nurseís practice is validated and professional growth is
enhanced." Effective leadership is a process that can be learned and
requires an understanding of the needs of the people one is leading and
understanding how to motivate people.
A definition of
leadership style is provided by Nunnery as well as a discussion of three
leadership styles. A leader does not utilize the same leadership style at
all times. The style used will vary with the situation, the task to
be accomplished, and the individuals one is working with at the time.
Leaders will change the style of leadership in order to maximize their
leadership effectiveness. Check out the following sites for definitions of
different leadership styles http://www.grundig-akademie.de/quali/uktrain/u12/u12_3.htm
this latter site discusses the when the different
types of leadership would be effective and when effective.
There are many
sources that discuss leadership and management and the following site
compares leader traits and manager traits. Click on this address and and
read about the traits http://www.itstime.com/oct96a.htm.
You might find the following questionnaire helpful
to understand yourself, check out http://keirsey.com/cgi-bin/keirsey/newkts.cgi
There are many tests
to use in determining your leadership style and at the following site you
can find one such test, however, I liked this site because of the
discussion of the different patterns of leadership behavior. You can check
it out by clicking on the address http://p2001.health.org/ctw10/handoutS.htm.
Qualities that a
leader has vary with the individual but each of have an idea of the
qualities the ideal leader should possess. The following article http://www.users.daelnet.co.uk/users/crocombe/ftp/www/jj_kfnd/uk_nlp/assess/lit_srch.htm
discusses ideal qualities of leadership.
Managing is a
part of effective leadership, but the words are not interchangeable.
Gardner (1990) explains the managing task of leadership involves several
1. Planning and setting priorities
2. Creating processors and structures
3. Providing, delegating and coordinating the groups activities
4. Making decisions, even difficult ones
In order for a
manager to be effective, he or she also need to be able to plan, organize,
staff, lead, and to control. Leaders deal with effectiveness; managers
deal with efficiency (Plunkett and Attner 1997).
According to Tappen, et al.(1998), some differences between leadership and
management are as follows:
authority and influence
formally designated position
every nurses role
responsible for budgets, hiring and firing
by the use of leadership skills
(1997) a projection of future nursing leadership is made giving some key
1. The nurse of the twenty-first century will be energetic and use time
2. The nursing leaders will need a clear vision of what they want for
their profession, for individuals, families and the communities they
3. They must be willing to fight for excellence and unwilling to accept
4. They must be flexible and willing to deal with uncertainty.
5. They must be self assured and self confident, but open to new ideas.
If nursing is
to be recognized as a powerful force in healthcare, our leaders need to be
articulate, competent and credible, and will be able to work with
interdisciplinary teams. We as nurses, must incorporate all these
qualities into our professional practice to assure a strong future for our
profession in the twenty-first century.
Seminar Presentation on Leadership
Leadership Role in Nursing (Bill Hutchinson)
To define leadership. To explain the difference in leadership and
To differentiate and explain the three types of leadership.
To identify the skills required to be an effective leader in the
the nurse in transitioning from a role of staff to that including
managed care in the hospital and community setting.
According to Nunnery,
Chapter 8, on Leadership, the definition of "Leadership" is
identified as a set of traits, a position within a group that commits to
showing persuasion involving strength as power to achieve or succeed in
your goals. How the individual performs as a leader, varies from nurse to
nurse, depending on the position type and the institutionís job
description for that position. Leadership can be done effectively at all
levels of the Nursing spectrum from the staff nurse assistant to the Chief
Nursing of a major institution. It is how the nurse acts as a leader in
motivating others above or below to achieve his or her goal that
leadership is successful as an art.
The style by which we act
as leaders in our roles can be identified as three types, which are the
authoritative, lassiez-faire, and democratic. Depending on the individuals
self style, and the force or power by which one leads or directs others in
the path of success. The authoritative style can be seen as a leader with
high power tactics over a group leaving very little for others to actively
become involved with process changes or improvements. Others ideas are
mostly ignored, and the individual leads with strong control with the
expectation that all others will conform to his or her rules. Lassiez-faire
leaders can be seen as the type of leader who offers little or no
motivation to others in the group. Others in the group have some freedom
and self-control but can soon lead to stagnation and apathy or disinterest
in the success of the group or process. The democratic method of
leadership style is seen as the most productive within a group setting
because this offers room for the group to be one in decision making with
the leader identifying individual strengths and weaknesses and guides the
group with motivating questions and suggestions.
The Nunnery explains
several theories including 1/the great man leadership theory, 2/traitist
theories, 3/situational leadership theory, 4/transformational leadership
theory, and 5/leadership tasks theory. Anyone of these theories are easily
identifiable in our lives today, from our England neighbors as seen with
the monarchy to our selves with use of the check system involving politics
and government. Leadership, I (Bill Hutchison) believe it is best
described by John Gardner with the effective components in leadership and
tasks, the 5th theory mentioned. The tasks being envisioning
goals, affirming values, motivating, managing, achieving a workable unity,
explaining, serving as a symbol, representing the group, and renewing.
These tasks according to Gardner, and I (Bill Hutchison) agree, are the
requirements for "exercising true leadership" within an
individual and certainly pushes one to enable another person or group in
the direction of success and achieving oneís goal.
In Nursing, it is important
for the nurse to understand ones behavior and identify ones own leadership
style, especially when it comes to envisioning a new and improved practice
whether it be as an active role or a passive role with in the nursing
career community. Leadership is the best tactic that one can use to
motivate others and renew interest in others in attaining goals that are
for the good of all. There is a book available for any nurse to read that
is an excellent source of leadership and management improvement titled the
"One Minute Manager", by Kenneth H. Blanchard that is available
in the Ablah Library. It is a self-help book that is somewhat small and
easy to read that gives excellent information on how to apply leadership
in your every day life and work environment to be a successful leader as
well as manager.
Student Generated Discussion Questions:
- Discuss your own
perspective and share with the group your leadership ability as you
see it today in your job or position.
- How does it relate to
the theorists and how do other levels of leadership throughout the
"nursing community" within which you currently work or
active nursing group you may be involved in relate as well?
- What are your feelings
or ideas of an "effective leader" and give an example of
- Identify someone from
your past or present who has been or is seen as exemplary of excellent
leadership with in nursing or everyday community and the part of that
individualís tactics that you may or may not have adopted?
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the American psychological association
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M. (1990). Bass and Stogdills handbook leadership: Theory,
research. and managerial applications
(3rd ed.). New York: The Free Press.
J. W. (1990). On Leadership. New York: The Free Press.
S. & Pepper, J. M. (1993). Conceptual bases of professional
nursing (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott.
Plunkett, W.R. & Attner, R. F.(1997). Management: Meeting and
Exceeding Customer Expectations.
(6th ed.) Cincinnatti,
Ohio: South-Western College Publishing.
R.M., Weiss, S. A., & Whitehead, D.K. (1998). Essentials of
Nursing Leadership and Management.
Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Co.